Toro Semliki Wildlife Reserve was established as a game reserve in 1926 and was among the first protected areas to be gazetted. The main reason was to protect the large numbers of Uganda Kobs in the area. It covers an area of 542 km2. It is located in western Uganda, within Ntoroko and Kabarole districts.
Toro Semliki Wildlife Reserve enjoys a dramatic rift valley setting between the Rwenzori, kijura escarpment and Lake Albert. The dominant vegetation type is the open acacia-combretum woodland and grassy savannah, interspersed with patches of borassus palm forest, significant belts of riparian woodland along the main water courses, as well as some extensive swamps towards Lake Albert. The reserve itself is topographically unremarkable, set at a relatively low altitude starting from around 700m above sea level, but on a clear day the setting is truly awesome, with the sheer rift valley escarpment rising sharply from the eastern shore of Lake Albert, the 2500m-high Congolese Blue mountains on the western horizon and the mighty glacial peaks of the Rwenzori visible to the south west.
There are four communities living around the reserve.
This community is situated in the south of the reserve, about 18 km from Fort Portal town. The area is mainly inhabited by the Bakonjo who are traditional cultivators. The most important crops grown are maize, cassava, beans,soya beans, rice and bananas some of which is sold in Rwebisengo and Ntoroko markets
This community is located on the west and north western edge of the reserve in the Semliki Flats. The community mainly comprises the Batuku (Batoro-Bahuma), who are predominantly pastoralists. The Batuku are believed to be descendants of the Abarusula who were the royal army of the king Kabalega of Bunyoro Kitara Kingdom
Ntoroko fishing community:
This community is situated at the south-eastern tip of Lake Albert between the estuaries of Wasa and Muzizi rivers. The area, covering approximately 4 km2 has now been excised from the reserve and gazetted as a Wildlife Sanctuary to offer protection of any wildlife that interface in this area. The Ntoroko community depends mainly on fishing.
This community is located on the eastern escarpment of the rift valley. The majority of them are the Bakiga migrants who originally came to work in the tea estates in 1960s. During the good economic times, tea provided stable income. As the prices of tea deteriorated, they resorted to crop cultivation mainly beans, groundnuts, maize and bananas.
Getting to there
Kampala Fort Portal via Mubende is 290 km and Kampala –Fort Portal via Masaka-Mbarara-Kasese is about 465 km. Follow the route to Semuliki National Park from Fort Portal for the first 28 km before turning right at Karugutu trading centre. The reserve boundary is 3 km further on and the turn off to Semliki Safari Lodge is 26 km further on just beyond the bridge over the river wasa. Branch to the right 3km to the Lodge. Lake Albert is further on 25 km ahead at Ntoroko fishing village where UWA manages bandas, a campsite and a canteen.
There is an air field managed by UWA so visitors can charter planes and land at Semliki Safari Lodge where the air field is situated
This walk takes 3 to 4 hours and is conducted near Semliki Safari Lodge where you will meet our experienced ranger guides. Key primate species on this walk include chimpanzees, Red-tailed, vervet, Black and white colobus monkeys, Baboons. Angulates encountered are Waterbucks, Warthogs, Bush bucks, Buffaloes, Uganda Kobs, and Elephants.
There are three tracks across the savannah grassland of Toro Semliki Wildlife Reserve. Smaller forest and larger savannah elephants are regularly seen, along with Buffalo, Waterbucks, Warthog, and Uganda Kob. With luck, you may even see leopard and elusive Bushbabies. Game drives in the wildlife reserve are done in the morning, afternoon, and at night. After dark, visitors may come across curious nocturnal species such as the white tailed mongoose.
This takes 3 hours and it goes through a variety of habitats ranging from savannah woodland to riverine forest. Species encountered on this walk include; Ground Hornbills, Warthogs, Uganda Kobs, baboons, Black and White Colobus and Vervet Monkeys.
The Karugutu Community Conservation Association (KCCA) is a community based association whose objective is conservation education through Music Dance and Drama (MDD). They organize traditional dances for the visitors and they have a shop for handcrafts at the entrance of the reserve which they sell to visitors. Members of the KCCA perform for visitors
This is conducted on Lake Albert and the main attractions are Shoebills, African Pygmy Goose, Blue-breasted and Blue-Cheeked Bee-eaters and Blue-headed Coucal.
Hike to Nyaburogo Gorge:
This is an ideal walk for birders that starts right at the Reserve Head quarters. It is a 7 km hike that goes through a diversity of habitats including savanna, woodland and a forest in the gorge. Common birds sighted include: Arrow marked Babbler, Tropical Boubal, Black-headed Bushrike, Luhdrers Bushrike and primates including Black and White Colobus, Baboons, vervets and occasionary the Chimpanzees.
The Toro Semliki plain is predominantly grassy savanna and acacia-combretum woodland echoeing Murchison Falls National Park at the northern end of Lake Albert. Stands of borassus palms,lake shore marshland and broad river valleys filled with beautiful galley forest all add variety. Lake Albert lies outside the reserve but can be visited for canoing and bird watching.
Wildlife in Toro Semliki
Toro semliki contains the same key species as Queen Elizabeth and Murchison Falls National Parks; Elephant, Buffalo, Uganda Kob, Waterbuck, Warthog, Giant Forest Hog, Hippopotamus. Primates include Chimpanzees, Baboons and Monkeys including Vervet, Red-tailed and Black and White Colobus. Uniquely, the 200 strong Elephant population includes savanah and forest Elephant plus a hybrid form from inter-breeding. Researchers from the University of Indiana have been studying chimpanzees in the reverine forest at Mugiri close to Semliki Safari Lodge.
There are chances of encountering the chimpanzees when you take a primate walk.
The reserve boosts of 440 bird species including Red-necked falcon, Black-billed Barbet and the turkey like Abyssinian Ground-hornbill. The Shoebill is usually sighted in the marshes of Lake Albert.
There is a campsite and budget bandas run by UWA on the shores of Lake Albert at Ntoroko, these have to be booked in advance. Meals are prepared at the canteen at the campsite.
Another campsite is at the reserve headquarters in Karugutu.
Semliki Safari Lodge run by a private concessionaire The Uganda Safari Company offers upmarket tented camp.
Ntoroko Game Lodge offers luxury tented camps and a campsite at Ntoroko Landing site.
Reserve at a Glance
Queen Elizabeth spans the equator line; monuments on either side of the road mark the exact spot where it crosses latitude 00.
The Reserve was established in 1926 was among the first protected areas to be gazetted.
The Reserve is home over 440 bird species.